## Particle Physics

designed by Dr T. Marlow

## Specification:96 use the terms nucleon number (mass number) and proton number (atomic number)
97 describe how large-angle alpha particle scattering gives evidence for a nuclear atom 98 recall that electrons are released in the process of thermionic emission and explain how they can be accelerated by electric and magnetic fields 99 explain the role of electric and magnetic fields in particle accelerators (linac and cyclotron) and detectors (general principles of ionisation and deflection only) 100 recognise and use the expression r = p/BQ for a charged particle in a magnetic field101 recall and use the fact that charge, energy and momentum are always conserved in interactions between particles and hence interpret records of particle tracks 102 explain why high energies are required to break particles into their constituents and to see fine structure 103 recognise and use the expression Δ E = c^2Δm in situations involving the creation and annihilation of matter and antimatter particles104 use the non-SI units MeV and GeV (energy) and MeV/c^ 2, GeV/c^2 (mass) and atomic mass unit u, and convert between these and SI units 105 be aware of relativistic effects and that these need to be taken into account at speeds near that of light (use of relativistic equations not required) 106 recall that in the standard quark-lepton model each particle has a corresponding antiparticle, that baryons (eg neutrons and protons) are made from three quarks, and mesons (eg pions) from a quark and an antiquark, and that the symmetry of the model predicted the top and bottom quark 107 write and interpret equations using standard nuclear notation and standard particle symbols (eg π+, e-) 108 use de Broglie’s wave equation λ= h/p |